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Revised September 23, 2013

Fact Sheet 402

Drug Names and Manufacturers


REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS (NUKES)
NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS (NNRTIs)
PROTEASE INHIBITORS
INTEGRASE INHIBITORS
ATTACHMENT AND FUSION INHIBITORS
ANTISENSE DRUGS
IMMUNE STIMULATORS


None of these drugs can kill the HIV virus, but each class slows down the multiplication of the virus (replication) in a particular way.


Combination medications: Some manufacturers have combined more than one drug into a single tablet or capsule. Combinations within a single class are listed below. Combinations of more than one type of medication are discussed in Fact Sheet 470.


1. REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS (NUKES)

The first anti-HIV drugs. They block reverse transcription (the creation of viral DNA from RNA) by providing "decoy" building blocks that interrupt the process. Most are nucleoside analogs; tenofovir is a nucleotide analog.

Year*
Generic Name
Trade Name
Also known as:
Manufacturer
1987 Zidovudine Retrovir AZT, ZDV ViiV Healthcare & generic
1991 Didanosine Videx ddI Bristol-Myers Squibb & generic
1992 Zalcitabine Hivid, ddC, dideoxycytidine by Roche Manufacture discontinued in 2006
1994 Stavudine Zerit d4T Bristol-Myers Squibb & generic
1995 Lamivudine Epivir 3TC ViiV Healthcare & generic
1997 Zidovudine/Lamivudine Combivir Combines AZT and 3TC ViiV Healthcare & generic
1998 Abacavir Ziagen ABC ViiV Healthcare & generic
2000 Zidovudine/Lamivudine/abacavir Trizivir Combines AZT, 3TC, Abacavir ViiV Healthcare
2001 Tenofovir Viread TDF Gilead Sciences & generic
2003 Emtricitabine Emtriva FTC Gilead Sciences
2004 Abacavir/lamivudine Epzicom Combines Ziagen and 3TC (Epivir) ViiV Healthcare & generic
2004 Tenofovir/emtricitabine Truvada Combines Viread and Emtriva Gilead Sciences & generic

2. NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS (NNRTIs or NON-NUKES)

These also interrupt reverse transcription, by binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme and restricting its activity.

Year*
Generic Name
Trade Name
Also known as:
Manufacturer
1996 Nevirapine Viramune NVP Boehringer Ingelheim & generic
1997 Delavirdine Rescriptor DLV ViiV Healthcare
1998 Efavirenz Sustiva, Stocrin EFV Bristol-Myers Squibb & generic
2008 Etravirine Intelence ETR Tibotec
2011 Rilpivirine
Edurant  RPV Tibotec

3. PROTEASE INHIBITORS

Block the action of protease, an enzyme that cuts HIV protein chains into specific proteins needed to assemble a new copy of the virus. NOTE: when you see “/r” after the name of a protease inhibitor, that means it is boosted with a small dose of ritonavir. For example, SQV/r means saquinavir boosted with ritonavir. At present, only lopinavir and ritonavir are available in a single pill.

Year*
Generic Name
Trade Name
Also Known As:
Manufacturer
1995 Saquinavir Invirase SQV Roche
1996 Ritonavir Norvir RTV Abbott
1996 Indinavir Crixivan IDV Merck
1997 Nelfinavir Viracept NFV ViiV Healthcare
1997 Saquinavir Fortovase by Roche, manufacture discontinued in 2006
1999 Amprenavir Agenerase Manufacture discontinued in 2007   ViiV Healthcare
2000 Lopinavir Kaletra, Aluvia LPV Abbott& generic
2003 Atazanavir Reyataz ATV Bristol-Myers Squibb
2003 Fosamprenavir Lexiva, Telzir FPV ViiV Healthcare
2005 Tipranavir Aptivus TPV Boehringer Ingelheim
2006 Darunavir Prezista DRV Tibotec

4. INTEGRASE INHIBITORS

Integrase inhibitors: Block the action of integrase, an enzyme that inserts the viral DNA into the infected cell’s DNA strands.

Year* Generic Name Trade Name Also known as: Manufacturer
2007 Raltegravir Isentress RGV Merck

2012

Elvitegravir  None yet, part of Stribild  EVG

Gilead

2013 Dolutegravir Tivicay DTG ViiV Healthcare

5. ATTACHMENT AND FUSION INHIBITORS

Attachment and Fusion Inhibitors: Block the action of integrase, an enzyme that inserts the viral DNA into the infected cell’s DNA strands.

Year
Generic Name
Trade Name
Also known as:
Manufacturer
2003 Enfuvirtide Fuzeon T-20 Trimeris and Roche
2007 Maraviroc Selzentry, Celsentri MVC ViiV Healthcare

*Year of approval in the USA. Many generic versions have been approved under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). See http://www.fda.gov/oia/pepfar.htm for more information.


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