Fact Sheet 120

Normal Laboratory Values





Each commercial laboratory has its own set of “normal” values, called “Normal Range” or “Reference Range” on your lab report. These values depend on the equipment or method used. Compare your results to the range shown on your lab report. Results that are “out of range” may not represent a problem. Your test results can be affected by several factors, including your age or gender, if you are pregnant, the time of day when the sample was taken, active infections, stage of HIV disease, and food (some test samples need to be taken after you have fasted - not eaten anything - for several hours). Where normal values for men and women are different, they are indicated as W for women and M for men. Discuss “out of range” results with your health care provider.

The table below compares the units used in the United States with the "Système International d'Unités (SI units), a metric system used in many parts of the world. The last column, "To Convert US to SI Units," is the factor to multiply US lab values to convert them to SI units. To convert SI units to US units, divide the SI value by the conversion factor. See page 2 for a terminology list.




Laboratory Test Normal Range in US Units Normal Range in SI Units To Convert US to SI Units
ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) W 7-30 units/liter
M 10-55 units/liter
W 0.12-0.50 µkat/liter
M 0.17-0.92 µkat/liter
x 0.01667
Albumin 3.1 - 4.3 g/dl 31 - 43 g/liter x 10
Alkaline Phosphatase W 30-100 units/liter
M 45-115 units/liter
W 0.5-1.67 µkat/liter
W 0.75-1.92 µkat/liter
x 0.01667
Amylase (serum) 53-123 units/liter 0.88-2.05 nkat/liter x 0.01667
AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) W 9-25 units/liter
M 10-40 units/liter
W 0.15-0.42 µkat/liter
M 0.17-0.67 µkat/liter
x 0.01667
Basophils 0-3% of lymphocytes 0.0-0.3 fraction of white blood cells x 0.01
Bilirubin - Direct 0.0-0.4 mg/dl 0-7 µmol/liter x 17.1
Bilirubin - Total 0.0-1.0 mg/dl 0-17 µmol/liter x 17.1
Blood pressure Normal: 120/70 to 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The top number is systolic pressure, when the heart is pumping. Bottom number is diastolic pressure then the heart is at rest. Blood pressure can be too low (hypotension) or too high (hypertension). No conversion
C peptide 0.5-2.0 ng/ml 0.17-0.66 nmol/liter x 0.33
Calcium, serum 8.5 -10.5 mg/dl 2.1-2.6 mmol/liter x 0.25
Calcium, urine 0-300 mg/24h 0.0-7.5 mmol/24h x 0.025

Cholesterol, total

60 mg/dL
40-60 mg/dL
1.55 mmol/liter
1.03-1.55 mmol/liter
br / W 0.6-3.1, M 15.0-40.0 pg/mlbr / W 0.4-2.5, M 13.0-35.0 pg/mlbr / W 0.2-2.0, M 12.0-28.0 pg/ml/p /td td width="32%"W 20.8-107.5, M 520-1387 pmol/liter< br/ W 13.9-86.7, M 451-1213 pmol/literbr / W 6.9-69.3, M 416-971 pmol/liter td width="14%"x 34.67/td /tr tr td width="22%"Triglycerides (fasting)br / Normalbr / Borderline br / High br / Very high/td td width="32%"br / 40-150 mg/dlbr / 150-200 mg/dlbr / 200-500 mg/dlbr / 500 mg/dl/td td width="32%"br / 0.45-1.69 mmol/literbr / 1.69-2.26 mmol/literbr / 2.26-5.65 mmol/literbr / >5.65 mmol/liter

x 0.01129
Urea, plasma (BUN) 8-25 mg/dl 2.9-8.9 mmol/liter x 0.357
Urinalysis: pH
Specific gravity
No conversion
WBC (White blood cells, leucocytes) 4.5-11.0x103/mm3 4.5-11.0x109/liter No conversion



gram: common measurement of weight. Used in this table: pg (picograms), g (grams), mg (milligrams), etc. per liter
katal (kat): a unit of catalytic activity, used especially in the chemistry of enzymes. Used in this table: µkat (microkatals), nkat (nanokatals) per liter
micrometer (µm): a unit of length. Mean Corpuscular Volume is expressed in cubic micrometers
mole: also “gram molecular weight,” a quantity based on the atomic weight of the substance. Many test results in the Système Internationale are expressed as the number of moles per liter. In US units, these measurements are usually in grams per liter. Used in this table: mmol (millimoles), µmol, (micromoles), nmol (nanomoles), pmol (picomoles) per liter

Some units of measurement include the following fractions and multipliers:

mega (M): 106 or x1,000,000

milli (m): 10-3 or ÷1,000

kilo (k): 103 or x1,000

micro (µ): 10-6 or ÷1,000,000

deca or deka: 101 or x10

nano (n): 10-9 or ÷1,000,000,000

deci (d): 10-1 or ÷10

pico (p): 10-12 or ÷1,000,000,000,000


Back to Fact Sheet Categories